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a (94) számú beírásra
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Írd be ide a fenti képen látható kódot.
Ez a programok által bevitt veszélyes tartalmak beírásának megelőzésére szolgál.
(ha bizonytalan vagy a kód olvasásában, a kis nyilakra kattintva kérhetsz egy másikat)
(94) számú hozzászólásának szövege:
...long chain of movements in the space between Dnieper and Lower Danube, until the last remnants of the Hunnic confederation lost their power. The first consequence was the migration of the Gothic groups led by Fritigern, Alaviv, Alatheus and Saphrax. In 376 and 377, they took refuge in Moesia Secunda, where after a short time they rebelled against the Roman authorities. Until the battle of Adrianople (9 August 378) and then until the closing of a peace treaty (3 October 382), the Gothic warriors plundered large areas in the Thracian diocesis. In the northern part of Scythia Minor, Dinogetia suffered destruction during these years (the end of phase I).5 At Argamum, the end of life in the extramuros occurred under the same circumstances (a coin hoard dated to 375 is associated with the destruction)6. It is possible that the burned level noticed at Ibida, dated to the second half of the 4th century7, was the result of the same events and we could even assume there was a fire in Troesmis in this period8.
After a few years, the Hunnic advance began to show its enduring effects in this region. An invasion of Skiri and Karpodakai mixed with the Huns is recorded in 381. The battle took place somewhere near the Danubian frontier, and the enemies returned north of the river. The most probable date is 381.9 The name Karpodakai was created by Zosimos to distinguish them from their brothers previously settled in the empire, during the Tetrarchy: they were the Carpi who remained in Dacia, now under Hunnic domination10. If they came from Moldavia, it is highly probable that the Danube was crossed at Noviodunum. In 386, King Odotheus of the Greuthungs asked to be received in the empire with his people, and tried to cross the frontier, leading a coalition of various tribes. If Odotheus was able to gather it and start the conflict, it could be inferred that the Huns were not yet the true masters in the region, and that Odotheus was more or less independent. The attack was launched with 3000 monoxilae (the number was perhaps exaggerated by Claudianus). Their use implies the cooperation with the local population that possessed such small boats for fishing. The limes were still well defended by the army commanded by Flavius Promotus, magister peditum Thraciae, and the navy blocked the river, trapping and slaughtering the enemies; even Odotheus was killed11. The fight took place somewhere in northern Dobrudja, perhaps around Noviodunum.
In 391, Moesia Secunda, Scythia and Thrace were invaded by Bastarnae and Getae, according to the single available source, the poems of Claudianus. The South-East European provinces had already plundered some years before by the rebel Visigoths settled in Moesia, who broke the peace agreement from 382.
The next Ostrogothic attack over the Danube took place in 394. This information is again from another of Claudianus’s poems (Against Rufinus). The church historian Socrates Scholasticus asserted that the praefectus of the eastern praetorium Rufinus, the rival of Stilicho, summoned the Huns to invade the empire20, but this cannot be proved. If true, Zosimos would have been recorded something about such „invitation”. Claudianus was speaking only about the Getae (Geticis catervis) who crossed the frozen Danube with their wagons (per terga ferocis Danuvii solidata ruunt expertaque remos frangunt stagna rotis), reaching the borders of Dalmatia21.
The Huns were not involved this time, and their offensive in the East (Persia and the oriental provinces of the Roman Empire) in 395 indicates a change of their plundering raids. The reason was very simple: the South-East European provinces, pillaged for two decades by various invaders, were already exhausted
in the first two decades following the Hunnic invasion of 376, northern Scythia Minor was only seldom affected by the barbarian attacks or mutinies. After the troubles between 378 and 382 that indeed caused much destruction, this region entered a period of relative peace. As it results from the archaeological evidence, the attacks launched between 381 and 394 set the fortresses from this area on fire. At Halmyris, the Hunnic occupation was a mere incident without enduring consequences.
A real Hunnic domination was established near the Lower Danube only after the beginning of the 5th century. In 400, King Uldin became Arcadius’s ally after he killed the rebel Gainas who was searching shelter and support from his Gothic brothers in present-day Walachia or Moldavia.
Huns crossed the frozen Danube in the winter of 404/405, plundering the Thracian diocesis24. In 408, Uldin launched a more serious attack in Dacia Ripensis, Moesia Secunda and Scythia, but the Roman army was finally victorious because many Hunnic warriors betrayed25. In northern Scythia Minor, destructions that could be associated with this moment are clearly attested at Troesmis26, Dinogetia (in extramuros)27 and Aegyssus28. Level 7 from Halmyris was burned during one of these invasions in 404 or 408. The chronology of the first two levels of the fort from Babadag–Topraichioi is unclear, because coins issued between 395 and 402 were found on both levels.
25 Sozomenos, IX. 5 (FHDR, II, 228/229); Codex Theodosianus, 221 (V. 6. 3); Bury 1923, 212-213, 271; Stein 1959, 247; Maenchen-Helfen 1973, 63-66; Williams, Friell 1999, 108-109; Rouche 2009, 113-114.
a new fleet of 250 boats for Moesia and Scythia was established by the edict of 28 January 41230. But this was not enough to repel the increasing danger that became manifest after a few years. In the 420’s, there was another Hunnic power center in the North-Pontic steppes. Its ruler, King Rua launched an invasion in the Thracian diocesis in 422, when the army that defended the region had been moved to fight against Persia. The Huns advanced up to the Succi gorge (Trojanova Vratza). The comitatensis army was summoned from the East in order to fight against the invasion that threatened even Constantinople. The Huns were convinced to retreat, receiving an annual tribute of 350 gold pounds (around 114.5 kg).31 The attack from 422 had a wide impact in northern Scythia Minor. Destructions are attested at Babadag–Topraichioi (level 3)32, Aegyssus (in the thermae)33, Ulmetum
conflict was ended when the Huns already moved to Pannonia, with a peace closed at Margus between Attila and the ambassadors Plinthas (magister militum) and Epigenes (quaestor sacri palatii). The date of this treaty has usually been set in 435, but now it is known that Epigenes became quaestor sacri palatii in 438. C. Zuckerman drew the conclusion that the treaty of Margus could be dated only to the winter of 439/44037. According to Priscus, after this peace treaty were returned to the Huns the princes Mama and Atakam, executed as possible rivals (szerk.: árulók, traitors). They were handed over in a small fort (phrouríon) from Thrace called Karsus38. This was usually identified with Carsium in Scythia Minor (Hârşova)
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