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a (212) számú beírásra
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(212) számú hozzászólásának szövege:
the conquest of Gandhara occurred between AD 460 and 470 because one of the Gupta rulers, Skandagupta (455 – 467/68)713, was forced to fight with the Hephthalites, even to stop their first attack. Gafurov states that these were the first raids of the Hephthalites to Gandhara.714 The earliest Indian report on the ‘Huna’ is in the Bhitari inscription of Skandagupta, where the king is said to have been in intense conflict with the ‘Huna’. As Skandagupta possesed Malwa and Gujarat, the ‘Huna’ probably came into contact with the Indians in the Lower Indus region
Yeh-po-lo [Gopāla] which had been defeated by the He-ta (Hephthal) and their Chihchin [Tegin or provincial governor] became the king. Since the time they gained control of this land two generations have passed”. Based on this Song Yun’s visit was in AD 520, so Gandhara was conquered approximately in AD 465.
At the end of 5th century AD the Hephthalites were led by Toramana (ca. 490
– 515). In the “Rajatarangini”, his name was Vasukula, who also had the title Teghin and the epithet Jaūvla, which means “falcon”. According to the copper inscription his title was – “devarāja” (god-king). There is information in one of India's inscription, about him, which reads “famous Toramana great luster of great glory, governor of land”.729 Toramana ruled in parts of present-day Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and Kashmir. His expansion to the west was stopped by the Aulikaras around Mandsaur. This is documented by the Risthal stone slab inscription of Prakashadharma Aulikara (ca. 515).
Mo-hi-lo-ku-lo (Mihirakula), who was of talent and naturally brave, ruled throughout India and all neighbouring states were his vassals. Indian sources indicate that Mihirakula had ferocity and fearlessness.
Especially Kalhana, in his historical chronicle of Kashmir “Rajatarangini”, gave a description of the king as violent and like the god of destruction Kala and many people feared him.
Baladitya (his name explained as “rising or young sun”), king of Magadha, who was Buddhist, rebelled against Mihirakula’s order to persecute Buddhism in his empire, according to Xuanzang.
Mihirakula invaded Magadha but he was defeated and imprisoned by Baladitya. Later Mihirakula was released after a petition by Baladitya’s mother.
Mihirakula took refuge in Kashmir where he murdered the ruler became king
himself. Then he defeated the Gandhara kingdom but less than a year after victory he died. After the death of Mihirakula, his heirs (in the “Rajatarangini” some names of the rulers survived: Baka, Pravarasena II, Narendraditya-Lakhana, Hinga, Yudhisthira)<
the Epthalite branch of the Huns entered through the northwestern gate of India in fifth century A.D. Consolidating their base in Afghanistan(?) and the capital in Bamiyan, they tried to invade India(?). About 458 A.D., they entered Punjab and the failure of the Guptas to guard the northeast frontier of the Empire led the Huns to an unopposed entrance in the Gangetic valley, the heart of the Gupta Empire. However the invasion by Toraman was completely unsuccessful against the Guptas because the Gupta Emperor Skandagupta inflicted a crushing defeat upon them and pushed them out of their frontier. The Huns suffered a great loss.
renewed their invasion against the strong foundation of the Gupta Empire. But the later Gupta emperors were not powerful enough to protect the northeastern frontier of the Gupta Empire from fresh incursions of the Huns. The Huns under Toraman poured in once again through the Hindukush passes. During this phase of invasion, Toraman conquered Punjab, Rajputana and Malwa. He reduced a number of local kings as his vassals and he assumed the title of "Maharajadhiraja"
His coins and inscriptions are found in extensive regions of Sutlej and Yamuna. It is known from numismatics and epigraphic evidences that Toraman had his sway over the regions of Punjab, Rajputana, Malwa, Kashmir and parts of Doab
He ruled from 510 to 511 A.D. Bhanu Gupta, a scion of the Gupta House and his feudatory Gopalachandra, challenged Toraman`s dominance in India. They inflicted a humiliating defeat upon him, which forced him to retreat to the other side of India.
Toraman was succeeded by his son Mihirkula. He was a Hinduised Hun and from his coins it is evident that he was a Saiva. Mihirkula was a notorious warrior like his father and killed people, demolished Buddhist temples and also devastated towns and cities. From Punjab Mihirkula tried to dominate on Rajputana and Malwa.
his 15th reigning year, it is known that Yasodharmana, a feudatory of the Guptas had imposed a severe crush on Mihirkula. At that time Mihirkula was engaged in terrible warfare with Baladitya. It is suggested that the anti-Buddhist activities of Mihirkula had magnified the dimension of his conflict with Mihirkula.
in the regions of Punjab. The inscription of Mihirkula states that he had built the Sun temple and the Buddhist monastery. Henceforth there is still a keen controversy over the subject that whether Mihirkula was a destroyer of Buddhism or not.
(Módosította hun bod 2013.08.29. 11:53-kor)
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