hun bod (102) számú hozzászólásának szövege:
According to Tacitus, the Huns of Kushan were already in the Turan lowlands of Atyrau Province by 91AD. By the early 4th century AD, a Kushan noble called Malkar of Khi, had become leader of the Huns settled there. Malkar is accredited with first leading the Huns into the Volga Delta where they found the Alans. In alliance with Dulo the Alan king, Malkar went on to forge ten tribes into the first proto-Turkic tribal confederation.
Wresting control of Turkmenistan from the Sasanian Empire in the 5th century AD, Malkar's "Dulo" Confederation of Ten Tribes caused a migration of Khurasanis into Dagestan as the Caucasian Avars. As a result of this backfire, the Sabirs settled there were forced to attack the Alan strongholds of the Dulo Ten Tribe Confederation in the Kuban steppe. To strengthen their ***, Malkar's Confederation of Ten Tribes now under the leadership of Ernakh entered into an alliance with Byzantium at Phanagoria in the 460s AD. In the 550s AD, the Caucasian Avars pushed further conquering Phanagoria and forcing Sarosios of the Alans to petition Byzantium for land.
Within a few years, the Dulo "Ten Tribe" Confederation in Atyrau Province allied themselves to the Ashinas forming the Western part of the Gokturk Empire and were able to snatch Phanagoria back from the Avars renaming the Sabirs as Khazars under the rule of Kaghan Kazarig.
Patria Onoguria, referred to as such by Agathius, Priscus Rhetor, Zacharias Rhetor, and Pseudo-Zecharias Rhetor, was a Hunno-Bulgar state around the Sea of Azov granted by Byzantium to the Onogurs in the 460s AD when, led by Attila's sons Dengizich and Ernakh, they overran Karadach's Akatziroi already settled in the region within the larger context of the Great Migrations and the Turkic expansion. From the 5th to 8th century this was the kingdom of the Hunugur/Onogur/Unogur Crimean Huns
Sabir ( Savir, Subar, Savar, Suwār, Suvar; sbr, Greek: Σάβιροι
Priscus mentions that the Sabir attacked the Saragur, Urog and Unogur tribes in 461 AD, forcing them north to the Volga once more, as a result of having themselves been attacked by the "Avars". In 515, having recovered from the Avar attacks of the 460s, they "advertised their power in a huge raid south of the Caucasus, in which they attacked Iranian and Byzantine lands with scrupulous impartiality". They eventually came into allegiance with Persia.
However, in the face of the increasing Avar threat, the Sabirs, previously allied with Sassanid Persia, switched their allegiance to the Byzantines in 552 and invaded the Caucasus. Soon afterwards, they were conquered first by the Avars and later by the Göktürks.
Prokopios of Caesarea (V century) wrote that the shores of Asov Sea and Don were inhabited by tribes, which "were called Kimmerians in the old times, and now are called Utihurs". Concerning the latter tribes, it should be said that one of Hun kings had two sons, Utihur and Kuturhur. After the death of their father, the tribes subject to them consolidated into two separate tribes, Authors and Kuturhurs
Onogurs in the Armenian sources. The earliest are in the work of Egishe, written between 458 and 464 . Egishe mentions that to the north of the land Chora (the Derbend pass) lived the Huns Hajlandur (hajlandur'k). They already had a 'royal clan', that is, tribal aristocracy, and Christianity was beginning to spread among them. They maintained connections with the Kushans - in 454 a young Hajlandur at the service of the Persian ruler Yazdgird II (438-457) ran away to the Kushans, warned them about the forthcoming Persian attack and thus contributed to the victory of the Kushans. According to A.D. Gadlo the identification of the Hajlandurs with the Onogurs is confirmed by a fragment of the history of Egishe, preserved in the 10-th century Armenian author Moses Kagankatvaci, where the country of the Hajlandurs is called Aguandria (Aluandria), that is, country of the tribe Aguandur. This name resembles the ethicon auangur-avnagur by which the Syrian texts call the Onogurs.
The texts also locate north of the Caucasus the Unogundurs, a name that is very similar to that of the Onogurs. Almost all chroniclers connect the Unogundurs with the Proto-Bulgarians. For example the Byzantine patriarch Nicephorus calls the ruler of Great Bulgaria khan Kubrat "the ruler of the Unogundurs",
Agathius (second half of the 6-th century) informs that these Onogurs long time ago had attacked the Colkhis at the Black Sea coast, but were defeated. On this occasion the place of the battle and a fortress nearby were named Onoguris .
 Agathiae Historiarum libri V. - Ed. L. Dindorf. HGM, 1871, p.217. 243