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Csak törpe nép felejthet õs nagyságot,
Csak elfajult kor hõs elõdöket,
A lelkes eljár õsei sírlakához,
S gyújt régi sírnál új szövétneket.

(Garay)

 

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Idantirs - Dareios

In the end of VI century BC, Scythia got drawn into the orbit of global politics once again. The most powerful state of that time, united under the dominance of Persia and extending from Fore-Asia and Asia Minor to India, raised war on Scythians. In the head of the huge Persian army stood Dareios, who had made a long preparatory work to organize and mobilize the forces for the invasion to Scythia, as though in revenge for ravaging Fore-Asia during the 28-year-long staying there after their invasion there 150 years before.

Around 513 BC, big Dareios� army began the campaign against Scythians. By the Herodotos� words, the army of Dareios consisted of 700 thousand people and 600 ships. Crossing Danube (Istros) via a bridge built by the Greeks of Asia-Minor for that purpose, Dareios entered the limits of Scythia. Realizing that they can not win such a huge army in open fight, Scythians resorted to their old �partisan� methods of waging war. Having made a lightning raid on an isolated Persian detachment, they disappeared in unbounded steppes, avoiding open fight.

Persians could win no battle and have lost much of their army and loot. Angry Dareios sent a messengers to Scythian king Idantirs, to carry the words: ��If you think you are strong enough to resist my force, why do you run from me all the time? Stop your wandering and fight with me�� The Scythian king answered on that: �If Persians want to get in the battle, let them dare to find and ruin the graves of our fathers, and then Persians would see what can Scythian warriors do in the battle. And you will yet pay for that you called yourself my master�.

Soon after that, Persian and Scythian armies stood against each other for a resolute fight. At that moment, Herodotos says, a hare ran between the Scythian ranks. Scythians, abandoning their weapons and paying no attention to Persians ready to fight, ran after that hare trying to catch it. Being informed about that, Dareios said: �These people treat with much neglect, and now it is clear, that we cannot win Scythians in the battle�. With the approaching of the night, Dareios had to run away from Scythia, leaving the camp of his weakened warriors. Thus Dareios� attempt to subdue Scythians failed (Fig. 5).


Atheios - Philip

in a middle of IV century BC, Atheios occupied the right side of Danube in a quite solid way. This territory was known among Ancient authors under the name of Scythia Minor, in contrast to the main Scythia on the banks of Dnieper and in the steppes of the Northern coast of the Black Sea. Atheios lead an active policy in this region. Written sources have kept the story about Atheios addressing the citizens of the Greek city Byzanth and threatening to water his horses under the walls of the city. His remarkable victory over the tribes of this region is well known as well. The important place in the military and political history of Scythians belongs to the war between Atheios and Philip II of Macedonia, the father of famous Alexander of Macedonia.

In the end of one of the episodes of Scythian war with the nearby tribes, when the situation was not favorable to Scythians, Atheios asked Philip for help. Philip agreed to help Atheios, but put forward the condition: Atheios would have to make Philip his heir, so that Philip would get Scythia after Atheios� death. Atheios was already almost 90 at that time. However Atheios refused to accept such a condition saying that he already had a successor. After that, the relations between them got aggravated, and Philip began war with Scythians. Atheios himself directed his army in the principal battle of this war, but Scythians lost the battle and Atheios died on the battle-field.

The Atheios� struggle surprisingly reminds the Karachai-Balkarian Nart epic telling of the struggle of epic hero prince Achei with the tribes hostile to Narts. The names Atheios and Achei are definitely identical.

death of Atheios and his defeat in the war with Philip were the beginning of the decline of Scythia as one of the most powerful states of I millennium BC The battle in which Atheios perished, took place in 339 BC Eight years later, Macedonia gave Scythia one more shattering blow. The domination of Scythians on the coasts of the Black Sea moved to decline and eventually finished in ruin. In II century BC, the successors of Scythians enter the scene of history. Among these successors, Hun-Bulgarians and Sarmats should be mentioned first of all.

http://kcr.narod.ru/miziev/miz-e.htm

 
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