hun bod (120) számú hozzászólásának szövege:
APAASHAR APA URUM APA URIM
(A)Purum / Ap(a-U)rum in the same line of the text [and even, (A)Par Purum
Bökli Čöllüg il, Tabγač, Tüpüt, (A)Par, (A)Purum, Kïrkïz, Üč Kurïkan, Otuz Tatar, Kïtany, Tatabï
the people of the Bökli plain, the Chinese, the Tibetan, the Avar, the Byzantium, the Kirghiz, the Üch Qurïqan, the Otuz-Tatar, the Qïtan and the Tatabï... This many peoples came and mourned and lamented. So famous kagans were they.]2
for Bumïn (Tumen according to Chinese sources) Qaghan’s passing in 552.
for Köl Tigin, who died in 731, in his inscription erected by Bilgä Qaghan, his elder brother, in 732,
and for Bilgä Qaghan, who died in 734,
Apurïm occurs in the form of prwmyn in the Inscription of Shapur I of Sasanian (242-272).6
Res Gestae Divi Shaporis [dated from 262 A.D.52] of Shapur I as “Aparshahr” / “Abarshahr” or “Abharshahr”,
Nishapur city was founded in the 3rd century by Shapur I as a Sasanian satrapy capital.
Apar and Apourim (Thomsen 1896, p. 98). H. N. Orkun followed Thomsen and read it apar apurïm (See Orkun 1936, p. 30-31; 1941, p. 151-152). Eventually B. Ögel wrote a long article on this problem and accepted the form “Apurïm”. Indeed, this word was an ancient Turkic form of Frōm ~ Frūm (=Byzantine Empire) as J. R. Hamilton explained (see Hamilton 1974, p. 111-117, cited after Sertkaya 1999, p. 25). About this matter, see, Ögel 1945, pp. 70-85; Kljashtornii 1964, p. 73 (“Purum”); Gumilev 1967, p. 34, fn. 42; Aalto 1971, p. 34; Sertkaya 1995, s. 135, especially 142; 145-147, 150-152 (“apa urum” = ‘the Great Rom’, owing to its spelling in Turkish :Rom > Rum > Urum).
According to Haussig, the word Aba in the Chinese sources stands for Apar in the Turkish Inscriptions.
VIIth century Sebēos calls a country in Northeastern Iran, near the city Nishapur, as “Ap(a)r Shah(r)” which evidently is the same as Eghishe’s Apar, whereas the earlier writers used to the term Armenian Apar ashkharh.
Ašxarhac‘oyc‘ by Ananias of Širak who lived between ca. 610-685,42
Persia and Aria and their bounding parts, and names a part of Aria as “Ap(a)r-Shahr”, together with Koshm and Wrkan.44
the problematic and mysterious word (A)Par occurs between the nations or countries Tüpüt (Tibet) and (A)Purum (Byzantium). Once some scholars tried to read it as Par, and recently Sertkaya repeated the reading Par 8, referring to Doerfer’s famous rule of the Turkic philology.9 However, as in the Orkhon Turkic texts the vocals a / ä at the beginning of the words were not written, and according to P. Aalto’s the famous rule for ancient Turkic and Mongolian, it should be a word of foreign origin,10 and must be read as Apar: “Neither the Turkic nor the Mongolian languages possess an initial p- in old original words.”11 Some researchers explained it either as the Avars (Ruan Ruan or the European Avars?),12 or the whole Iran country,13 and even the “White Huns” (Ak-Huns)14 in northeastern Iran, from the point of views of some historical and linguistic opinions.15
avar-kun várkony varhun várkun