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Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus, Greek Διοκλητιανός [notes 1] (245–311) was Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
He defeated the Sarmatians and Carpi during several campaigns between 285 and 299, the Alamanni in 288, and usurpers in Egypt between 297 and 298. Galerius, aided by Diocletian, campaigned successfully against Sassanid Persia, the empire's traditional enemy. In 299 he sacked their capital, Ctesiphon.
From at least 297 on, imperial taxation was standardized, made more equitable, and levied at generally higher rates.
: legyőzte a szarmatákat és kárpiakat (valszeg kárpát-medence, pannonok) 285-299 között
Galerius Dioklecián hadvezére volt szaszanidok ellen, 299-ben elfoglalta fővárosukat, Kteszifon-t.
297-től birodalmi adót vezett be, amely magasabb volt.
M. Aurelius Julianus, Carinus' corrector Venetiae, took control of northern Italy and Pannonia after Diocletian's accession. Julianus minted coins from the mint at Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) declaring himself as emperor and promising freedom. It was all good publicity for Diocletian, and it aided in his portrayal of Carinus as a cruel and oppressive tyrant.
: Julianus észak-Italia és Pannoniát elfoglalva, pénzt veretett a horvátországi Sisakban, és császárnak(?) kiáltotta ki magát és szabadságot ígért.
Before the end of February, a fire destroyed part of the Imperial palace. Galerius convinced Diocletian that the culprits were Christians, conspirators who had plotted with the eunuchs of the palace. An investigation was commissioned, but no responsible party was found.
Executions followed anyway, and the palace eunuchs Dorotheus and Gorgonius were executed. One individual, Peter Cubicularius, was stripped, raised high, and scourged. Salt and vinegar were poured in his wounds, and he was slowly boiled over an open flame.
: februárban tűzvészben elpusztult a birodalmi palota egy része, és Galerius meggyőzte Diokleciánt, hogy a keresztények a felelősek.
a vizsgálatok nem találták meg a felelőst, de elkezdődtek a kivégzések. sót szórtak a sebeikre, és lassú tűzön égették őket. 303-ban egy esetben hat embert végeztek ki egyszerre (fejeztek le), köztük Anthimusz érseket.
Dioklecián és Galerius elhagyta ezután a térséget, merthogy nem biztonságos.
The executions continued until at least 24 April 303, when six individuals, including the bishop Anthimus, were decapitated. A second fire occurred sixteen days after the first. Galerius left the city for Rome, declaring Nicomedia unsafe. Diocletian would soon follow.
Although further persecutionary edicts followed, compelling the arrest of the Christian clergy and universal acts of sacrifice,
a szerbeknél népi emlékezetben maradt meg az alakjuk
Galerius rescinded the edict in 311, announcing that the persecution had failed to bring Christians back to traditional religion. The temporary apostasy of some Christians, and the surrendering of scriptures, during the persecution played a major role in the subsequent Donatist controversy.
: 311-ben abbahagyták az üldöztetést (merthogy nem sikerült visszatéríteni a keresztényeket a tradicionális valláshoz)
és elkezdték tolerálni, majd favorizálni a kereszténységet.
Diocletian's persecution of Christians was repudiated and changed to a policy of toleration and then favoritism. Christianity eventually became the official religion in 380. Constantine would claim to have the same close relationship with the Christian God as Diocletian claimed to have with Jupiter.
Maximinus Daia (Maximinusz a dák) 270 – July or August 313
He became embroiled in the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy between rival claimants for control of the empire, in which he was defeated by Licinius. A committed pagan, he engaged in one of the last persecutions of Christians.
Maximinus entered into a secret alliance with the usurper Caesar Maxentius, who controlled Italy.
In 308, after the elevation of Licinius to Augustus, Maximinus and Constantine were declared filii Augustorum ("sons of the Augusti"), but Maximinus probably started styling himself after Augustus during a campaign against the Sassanids in 310. On the death of Galerius in 311, Maximinus divided the Eastern Empire between Licinius and himself. When Licinius and Constantine began to make common cause, Maximinus entered into a secret alliance with the usurper Caesar Maxentius, who controlled Italy. He came to an open rupture with Licinius in 313; he summoned an army of 70,000 men but sustained a crushing defeat
: 311-ben Galerius meghal és elkezdődik a tetrarchia titkos alkujainak időszaka
Cyriacus was a Roman nobleman who converted to Christianity as an adult and, renouncing his material wealth, gave it away to the poor. He spent the rest of his life ministering to the slaves who worked in the Baths of Diocletian. Under the reign of Western Roman Emperor Maximian, co-emperor with Diocletian, Cyriacus was tortured and put to death, beheaded in 303 on the Via Salaria, where he was subsequently buried.
Saint Cyriacus is credited with exorcizing demons from two girls. The first was Artemisia (or Artemia), the daughter of Emperor Diocletian, which resulted in both Artemisia and her mother Saint Serena converting to Christianity. The second was Jobias, the daughter of Shapur II of Persia (reigned 241-272),
: ebben a korban élt Sziriakosz, aki felnőtt korában kereszténységre tért és vagyonát szétosztotta a szegények között. Dioklecián és társuralkodója Maximian alatt megkínozták és lefejezték.
Civil wars of the Tetrarchy
starting in 306 AD with the usurpation of Maxentius and the defeat of Severus, and ending with the defeat of Licinius at the hands of Constantine I in 324 AD.
In 310, Maximian rebelled against Constantine while the emperor was on campaign against the Franks. Maximian had been sent south to Arles with part of Constantine's army to defend against attacks by Maxentius in southern Gaul. In Arles, Maximian announced that Constantine was dead and took up the imperial purple. Despite offering bribes to any who would support him as emperor, most of Constantine's army remained loyal, and Maximian was compelled to leave.
Maximian was captured, reproved for his crimes, and stripped of his title for the third and last time. Constantine granted Maximian some clemency but strongly encouraged his suicide. In July 310, Maximian hanged himself.
:310-ben Maximian Konstantin ellen fordul, miközben Dioklecián a frankok ellen háborúzott.
Maximian Arles-ban kijelentette, h Konstantin halott és felvette az uralkodói bíbort. de Konstantin hadvezérei nem álltak át hozzá, hiába ígért pénzt nekik. Így szégyenszemre el kellett hagynia a várost. Végül elkapták és Konstantin öngyilkosságot javasolt neki. Maximian felakasztotta magát.
According to the Liber Pontificalis, Marcellinus was buried on 26 April 304 in the cemetery of Priscilla, on the Via Salaria, 25 days after his martyrdom; the Liberian Catalogue gives as the date 25 October.
Magnus Maximus (Latin: Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus WelshMacsen Wledig) (ca. 335 – August 28, 388), also known as Maximianus and Macsen Wledig in Welsh
It is likely he also may have been a junior officer in Britain in 368, during the quelling of the Great Conspiracy. Assigned to Britain in 380, he defeated an incursion of the Picts and Scots in 381.
The western emperor Gratian had become unpopular because of perceived favouritism toward Alans over Roman citizens. The Alans are an eastern Iranian speaking people who were early adopters of Christianity and migrated both east and west from their homeland.
In 383 Maximus was proclaimed emperor by his troops. He went to Gaul to pursue his imperial ambitions, taking a large portion of the British garrison troops with him.
He used foederati forces such as the Alamanni to great effect. He was also a stern persecutor of heretics. It was on his orders that Priscillian and six companions became the first people in the history of Christianity to be executed for heresy, in this case of Priscillianism, by other Christians (though the civil charges laid by Maximus himself were for the practice of magic or "witchcraft", technically spiritual fraud by use of ventriloquism, and their property was confiscated. These executions went ahead despite the wishes of prominent men such as St. Martin of Tours. Maximus' edict of 387 or 388 which censured Christians at Rome for burning down a Jewish synagogue
Breuddwyd Macsen Wledig (English: The Dream of Emperor Maximus
He invaded Clausentum (modern Southampton) unintentionally and nearly fought the army of the Britons under Conanus before a truce was made. Following further negotiations, Maximian was given the kingship of Britain and Octavius retired. Five years into his kingship, Magnus Maximus assembled a vast fleet and invaded Gaul, leaving Britain in the control of Caradocus.
Upon reaching the kingdom of Armorica
he defeated the king and killed thousands of inhabitants. Before departing to Rome, he summoned Conanus, the rebellious nephew of Octavius, and asked him to rule as king of the land, which was renamed Brittany, or 'Little Britain'. Conan's men married native women after cutting out their tongues to preserve the purity of their language.
: Maximus király álma (wales-i népmese)
Maximus Konannal betört Klauzentumba és majdnem háború lett, de békét kötöttek. Király lett, majd öt év múlva elment Galliába, és Britanniát Karadokus-ra hagyta.
Armorikában megölte a királyt és néhányezer alattvalóját. Mielőtt Rómába ment, Konanra hagyta az egykori Armorikát, amit átneveztek kis-Britanniára és Konan és az emberei a feleségül vett nőiknek nyelvét kivágták, h ne beszélhessenek a saját nyelvükön.
(Módosította hun bod 2014.08.11. 21:05-kor)